â— Measurement constant: The identification density of Nephrite is 2.95g/cm3, the heterogeneity of the optical characteristics is an aggregate, the refractive index is 1.62 (spot measurement), the absorption spectrum is not characterized, and the magnification check is a fiber interweaving structure, identifying a jewelry Jade at least requires more than three inspections. The refractive index is a physical constant of the substance, and the refractive index of the same substance is relatively fixed. From these points in combination with the naked eye can be identified as Hetian jade. The appraisal department does not identify â€œjade stonesâ€ that do not have jade or do not have the basic characteristics of jade. Polished jade can be identified. The basic principle of identification is to see what is identified and what is not to be speculated.
â— For the raw materials submitted for inspection, the accreditation body can do â€œoil immersion lamellaâ€, similar to medical tissue sections, and can accurately identify the types of minerals.
â— The hardness value has a certain range of variation, and part of the Hetian jade material may have a hardness of less than 5 or less. The hardness varies even in different locations or in different directions on the same piece of jade. Deviations may be too large due to the influence of mineral inclusions. Hardness testing is a complex problem. Without simple measuring instruments, it is generally possible to compare relative hardness using objects of known hardness. Most of the fields of Hotan can move the glass, even the smooth and rounded surface.
â— The individual commissioned appraisal is generally 50--100 yuan, and the batch appraisal certificate is generally 30 yuan. Some merchants require no classification in the submission of samples, so the identification conclusion is only "Hetian jade." You can ask the accreditation body to use the national standard GB/T16552-2003 "Jewelry name" to identify. However, even if it is identified as "Hetian jade" does not represent the origin.
â— Saitama is a serpentine jade, and Xinjiang also produces serpentine jade in many places. Serpentine jade produced in Xinjiang cannot be called Hetian jade. The appraisal nomenclature is based on the mineral material properties of jade, which is the most basic identification common sense.
â— The identification of jewels and jades belongs to the commissioned appraisal. We advocate the classification appraisal and naming, but if the request for inspection is not categorized and appraised, only the general name â€œHetian jadeâ€ is appraised. The "Laoyu" and "Hemoyu" produced in the northeastern Xiuyan are tremolite, which belong to nephrite jade. The naming and classification are the same as Hetian jade. Where there are no data or blanks in the certificate, a few dash â€œ---â€ or slash â€œ///â€ is generally printed. There are also a small number of accreditation bodies that print â€œ**â€, but this alone cannot determine the authenticity of the certificate. The gemstone identification certificate is generally not filled with density because the density measurement is cumbersome and the general sample is not measured.
â— The inspection tag only indicates that the product has been inspected and cannot provide too much information. It is mainly used in conjunction with certificates and identification cards. The identification tag mainly provides a weight and unique number that can be checked, and the tag can be rechecked for free.
â— The identification card is an identification card with no photo as large as a business card, and the identification fee is relatively low. Many simple certificates (certificate cards) do not have test data and do not mean there is a problem with the certificate. The general identification certificate has a telephone number and can be telephoned.
â— The certificate is written in the same way as â€œHetian jadeâ€ or â€œHetian jade (Nephrite jade)â€. â€œSoft jadeâ€ is the name of the rock mineralogy of tremolite jade and it is rarely used in the jewelry industry.
â—The verification fee should be paid by the seller. If the buyer pays, the seller should provide the invoice. If an inspection agency cannot verify and prove "counterfeit," you can lodge a complaint about its inspection qualification.
â— The hardness of nephrite is mostly concentrated between 6 and 6.5. There are as few as 5 and rarely more than 6.5. The hardness of the glass is generally 5 to 5.5, and the hardness of a single-sided blade or art blade is 5.5. Hardness experiments need to gradually accumulate experience to accurately determine.
â— The accreditation agency provides accreditation services according to the customer's entrustment. At present there are generally four ways:
1, A4 pages of written identification certificate, generally used to provide a certificate for the judiciary, easy file filing, and sometimes accompanied by an appraisal report; stamped but not plastic, there is a photo when riding sew (stencil);
2, commercial identification certificate, equivalent to the size of five-inch photo, with color photos, over plastic;
3, identification card, slightly larger than the business card, there are several identification content, over plastic, no photo;
4, identification labels, product identification signs, product identification name, weight and identification number.
Online certificate data will not be deleted. A certificate query can prove that the certificate is true, but it cannot prove that the certificate matches the physical object. Diamond jewelry style can be freely copied, data query does not make sense.
â— The white jade of suet refers to high-quality white jade. There is no grading of whiteness at present, and it is not that the whiter the better, and there is no point of origin. It is considered that the production of suet white jade only in Hetian is a misleading or cognitive error. Hetian jade does not necessarily come from Hetian.
â— The place of origin is the result of speculation. It is not the result of the test. National standards and international practices do not support the division of gemstones by origin. This is a matter of principle and the accreditation body must abide by it.
â— Jewels and jades are just a kind of mineral resources, and their distribution area will not be shifted by human will. The name of the jewelery jade on the certificate does not have meaning of origin. Even "Hetian jade" is only the name of the variety and does not mean the meaning of origin.
â— The appraisal of ancient jade is a specialized discipline, and we can't identify the ancient jade.
â— A cargo Jade is an emerald that has not been processed by humans. It is not necessarily a high-grade emerald. Many of the low-grade jadeite are not even necessary for manual processing, but also belong to A cargo. "A cargo" only means that it has not been handled manually, not the grade of the goods.
â— The artificial production of skin color is mostly to make jade materials better and increase their prices. However, if the production is "too fake," it will be counterproductive. This is the same as the effect of people doing beauty.
â— The carvings made by seed jade can be issued with an appraisal certificate, but the appraisal is only for appraising the variety, and â€œZiyuâ€ will not be indicated, because the appearance and characteristics of Ziyu can be completely imitated. Some online sales companies say that the sub-materials do not have certificates, because some of their carvings have been dyed, but they are required on the certificate, so businesses are not willing to do the identification.
â— Nephrite is the mineralogical name of tremolite-positive rock and is not suitable as a commercial name. The appraisal for writing â€œsoft jadeâ€ is generally from a quality inspection agency that does not understand the identification of jade devices, or an organization that does not properly study the appraisal rules. Writing "Hetian jade" is often because the business requires no classification or the accreditation body cannot accurately classify it.
â— The certificate has been forged. Even the Olympic Games official website has forged certificates. Should you note that the verification certificate is in line with the physical object? There are photos on the certificate. You can check the photos first. Like bracelets, the photos are similar and cannot be checked, and the total weight can be further checked. Some of the certificates can also be checked for size so as to avoid business fraud and Zhang Guanli. The total weight can be checked in general jewelry stores and gold stores. An accurate check can find the local jewelry appraisal agency. Generally, the certificates issued by this institution are free to recheck.
â— All state agencies must implement the national standard. If the business meets a dispute, it will be judged according to the standard. Therefore, we repeatedly explain the concept of Hetian jade, so that the majority of consumers and enthusiasts understand the actual situation and rules in the market. The Russian nephrite also has very good raw materials. Its average quality is not worse than that produced in Xinjiang. We do not need to be arrogant. Just as you sail in a river, you can't sail in the water, but at the very least, you must know the direction of the current.
â— The tremolite jade produced in the northeastern Xiuyan and Haicheng areas is currently identified according to the broad classification system of Hetian jade, including Qingyu, Qingbaiyu, Baiyu and Topaz. If a jade is called a different appraisal name in different places of production, what is the significance of setting a national standard?
â— The use of a bright flashlight can help identify Hetian jade and observe the internal structure of jade. As for the difference in origin, I am afraid it is not an easy thing. Who can understand so many producing areas? Samples of Hetian, Russian, Qinghai materials, the price is not much difference, do not have to stick to the origin.
â— "Tallow Jade" is an abbreviation for "Sheep White Jade." Both have the same meaning. In the spoken language, "fat jade" is generally used, and "sugar white jade" is used in official or written language.
â— There are also cases where the masterpieces are color-appearing. Tiangong Awards are also available. In accordance with the regulations, the situation of additive coloring should be clearly stated. At present, some jade materials with high coloring techniques are difficult to detect in the laboratory. Now dyeing can go deep into the jade.
â— Hetian jade does not have A goods and B goods. The common manual treatment is dyeing. The so-called "great taste" of a merchant is originally an inflated language that cannot be defined. The authentication certificate will not indicate whether it is a sub-material.
â— The appraisal certificate only authenticates and classifies the product. It is just an â€œidentity cardâ€ and generally does not involve quality and quality. The "fiber interweaving tissue" is an internal structural feature that is not visible to the naked eye. "Fine texture" is a visually observed feature that is visible.
â— According to the provisions of national standards, the concept of â€œHetian jadeâ€ we use at present is a broad concept, which has the same meaning as nephrite. If we specifically refer to the place of production, we will also use the terms of Hetian, Qinghai, and Russian.
Hetian jade is the name of a jade variety and does not have meaning of origin. If we say "Hetian material" is the meaning of origin. Therefore, your carved piece can be named Hetian Yu, and the products sold on the market are also named as such. For consumers, distinguishing the origin is more difficult and requires the accumulation of practical experience.
â— Counterfeiting is to pursue economic benefits. In the case of the same quality, sub-materials are much more expensive than mountains, several or tens of times, with no fixed number. For similar reasons, the number of sub-sales on the market is many times larger than the actual output, several dozen times or more. There are also a lot of goat fat white jade in the mountains, and its output is also in direct proportion to the total output of the mountains. If there is no white fat in the mountains, where does the sub-material come from? Substances should not be polished when they are sold, and they cannot be distinguished from ordinary abrasives after polishing. With the same texture of jade material, gobi material prices are higher than those of mountain materials.
â— The flashlight sidelight illumination method can judge the structure of jade based on experience, but it cannot be judged based on this alone. In general, other aspects of experience should be combined, such as weight, feel, natural or processed surface gloss, blemishes, knocking sounds, and hardness. Some artificial stones are a mixture of stone powder and plastic.
â— Infrared spectroscopy is more accurate than density measurement; it contains a small amount of other minerals to indicate that the jade is not pure; the color origin is undecided to indicate that the color of the â€œbrownâ€ part is doubtful and there is no sufficient evidence. The "color cause" of the certificate is generally referred to as the skin color in question. If it can be determined that the skin color is dyed, the identification certificate should be indicated. For the case of dyeing and skinning, there are differences in the detection mechanisms of different detection institutions, especially for the conditions where the color is very light and the dyeing area is small. Many institutions do not make annotations. At present, the technique of dyeing has developed rapidly. Generally, the judge has doubts about the cause of color, but it lacks exact evidence.
â— If you can determine the natural color, the certificate does not have to indicate. If it can be determined that it has been dyed, it must be marked "dyed." If there is doubt but there is no evidence, it should be noted that "the cause of surface color is not determined". Certainty, negation, and uncertainty can all be the result of identification. That is, it is not certain that the skin color is natural and there is no evidence of staining. The result is "the suspect was released without charge". There is a dyeing method in which the â€œskin materialâ€ ground in the mixer is first dyed brown green, and then baked to make the dye oxidized to brownish red. Because the Charles filter was able to identify only partially-colored jade, there was little use for the dyeing of Hetian jade.
â— The so-called oiliness is the description of texture, not the feeling of touch. The texture of jade needs to be observed from the light cleansing surface. Generally, the smooth surface of the material can be directly observed, and the mountain material needs to be cut and polished for observation. Hetian jade is not seeking transparency, it is gentle and honest. So believe in your own knowledge and feelings about jade.
â— The term waterline comes from the description of jade in Xinjiang. We can only say that the Baiyu waterline produced in Qinghai is relatively common, but it cannot be used as identification evidence or sign. Jade has â€œribsâ€ on it, which means that some of jade materials have strips and veins of jade.
â— The so-called snowflake jade is actually a business flicker people do not make out of mind, refers to the texture is not pure, there are a lot of white stone flower jade.
â— Dyed, made a fake skin color, and then opened a door, this is a deceptive old routine in the jade industry. Buying this material is not foolproof.
â— "I am very particular about leather color" I am afraid there is a misleading, with the dissemination of dyeing technology, I am afraid that in the future can not see no "skin color" sub-material or carved pieces, and skin color is no longer rare.
â— Yupai This accessory is said to have been created by the Luzioka of the Ming Dynasty. Generally speaking, Zigang is a large rectangular jade card with an auspicious pattern on the front and a poetic text on the back. However, most of the Zigaoka cards we see today are newly created jade bags, which have nothing to do with Zigang.
â— If it is a master's signature work, it should generally be distributed proof. The so-called master works, there should be proof provided by the master and the inscription. This year, if you do not see the master himself, these works are more "hanging." This situation can only be verified by the master himself.
â— At present, "Korean material" and Hetian jade on the market are similar jades, and the texture is slightly coarser. Most of them can be classified into a class of white jade and a part of white jade.
â— Russian jade and Hetian jade are roughly similar in structure, but there is still a certain difference in hardness, density, and toughness. Among them, the observation of light: Hetian jade is color-clear and has a uniform structure. The Russian jade can observe the "felt-like" structure with a little light observation. Because the felt is not woven, the fibers have a disorderly interweaving structure. The observation of the surface features of jade by means of a magnifying glass is one of the means of identification, but any identification method requires the accumulation of his own identification experience.
â— According to the materials we identified as "Peach Blossom Jade", most of them are "Platinum petrified quartzite" and decorated granite. Hetian jade does not have this variant. Taohuayu is just a kind of pink rock. When you visit the stone market, you will find that there are many beautiful stones.
â— There is no Huang Longyu, a national standard or historical record. It should be said that it is a name coined in some places. According to some reports, the so-called "Yunnan Huanglong jade" is an unstandardized name. The actual name should be chalcedony or quartz jade. The value of chalcedony is relatively low.
â— Huanglongyu belongs to the jade of quartzite or chalcedony. It is the name of the jade planted by the local government. It seems that it is not so named except in other parts of Yunnan. The so-called waterline and floc structure can also be seen in some quartzites.
â— Dushan Jade is China's four most famous jade, but now there are few players and collectors. The prospects for the collection of Dushan jade are not good.
â— Hetian jade and jasper are separate names, and the meaning of stringing together has changed. Don't be misled by this. It can be called Hetian jade, it can also be called Jasper, but it can't be called Hetian Biyu.
â— Black in jasper is not a skin color but an impurity component. Jasper sees with strong light, if the translucency may be jade, if it is not transparent, it may be green rock. Take a picture with a bright light. If you see a dark green, it is sapphire. If it is completely opaque, it may be another rock.
â— Hetian jade has been dyed in what color, there are black, yellow, purple, red and green. Hetian jade did not divide this variety of red jade. The so-called â€œred jadeâ€ that customers saw on the market was partly sugar and jade, and most of them were artificially colored jade. The so-called "pores" and "skin shells" can be imitated by hand-rolling, to determine whether the sub-material needs a combination of many factors.
â— All qualifications must be based on standards. There is no standard for producing areas in the world at present, so you can't find the organization that gave you the place of origin. However, the masters of rivers and lakes can give you identification of the origin, just like doctors in rivers and lakes.
â— In the Hetian jade network - Hetian jade department column - search for "moyu". There will be a very photo of the sample. The classification of most merchants in China Hetian Yu.com is relatively accurate.
â— The so-called "Old Jade" and "River Jade" are actually jade of tremolite, so the identification belongs to the category of Hetian jade.
â— Topaz is generally symbiotic with white jade and sapphire, and no symbiotic ore body has been seen yet. The so-called â€œred jadeâ€ currently being hyped is mostly dyed jade material, and a small amount is sugary jade. Some people are out of hype for this compilation of books, and jade friends must be vigilant.
â€¢ According to Archimedes' principle, an object immersed in water is subjected to upward buoyancy, and the size of the buoyancy is equal to the volume of water it displaces. You can place a large half of a beaker or other container filled with water on the weighing scale to zero the data, and then fix the object to be measured with a thin wire so that it is completely submerged and suspended in water. At this time, the weight of the displayed object in the water is its volume.
It can be obtained by the physical formula of junior high school: density=mass g/volume cm3. This method is feasible, and inspection agencies sometimes use this method:
With the development of the times and the improvement of peopleâ€™s living standards, in recent years, many friends gradually began to like Hetian Baiyu, a specific jade variety, a specific name for white nephrite, and its main minerals are tremolite and Yang Qi. Stones, density: 2.95 (about), a large part of the white jade that is circulated in the market is fake counterfeit goods, for example, quartz white marble jade, Afghan marble, Fangyu glass, etc., but the above-mentioned varieties --- density -- - They are all very different from white jade. Many of my friends suffer from not knowing how to identify the true and false white jade, resulting in a lot of fakes being miserable. We introduce here an electronic balance (ordinary balance). The simple method of identifying the density of nephrite jade hopes to help everyone:
Step 1. Turn on the electronic balance and return it to zero position.
Step 2. Record the data after weighing the jade.
Step 3, add the glass container to distilled water (if no water is available), place it on the electronic balance and reset the electronic balance to zero;
Step 4: Use the finest line to string the pieces of jade into the container. Note: All pieces of jade are required to be suspended in water and the weight of the pieces is recorded.
Step 5, using the second record of 44.1 grams divided by the fourth record of 14.8 grams of the resulting parameter 2.9797, is the jade piece density.
The density of Hetian jade is generally calibrated at about 2.95. If the measured density of a piece of jade is below 2.9, it can be concluded that it is not Hetian jade.
â— Q: I bought a safe card for a sheep fat jade, there is no appraisal, there is a task number and certificate number on the brand, said that now does not give an appraisal, to check on the Internet can know, is it true?
Answer: No, the business is lying. If you are buying at a tourist attraction, be careful.
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