High temperature and high pressure dyeing is an important dyeing method for polyester fiber. Due to the dyeing properties of polyester fiber and the special way of high temperature and high pressure dyeing, it also has special requirements for leveling agent for high temperature dyeing, and also for textile semi-finished products. Differences in form categories further create different specific personality requirements for high temperature leveling agents.
Therefore, in addition to the most fundamental basic properties such as retarding and transfer dyeing suitable for high temperature conditions of 130 Â° C, there should be special varieties that meet the dyeing characteristics of various polyester fiber semi-products. Otherwise, it will be difficult to apply in specific applications. It is well suited to the various types of personality characteristics in high temperature and high pressure dyeing, which greatly reduces the applicability.
Second, different dyeing characteristics of different fiber semi-product categories
The types of textile semi-finished products of polyester fiber are also available in various forms such as loose fibers, yarns and fabrics.
The dyeing of loose fibers is required for color spinning, the dyeing of yarns is mainly for yarn dyeing, followed by sewing and embroidery; the dyeing of fabrics is required for garments, home textiles, industrial fabrics, etc.
The dyeing of the fabric is also divided into various forms such as loose dip dyeing, flat web dyeing and warp beam dyeing.
Although dyeing by high temperature and high pressure methods is also used, different types of fiber semi-finished products must be matched to different dyeing equipments that conform to their respective form characteristics; otherwise, the textiles will obviously be seriously in style, characteristics, and quality of their products. Damaged, or even the feasibility of no staining.
The loose dip dyeing machine is suitable for weft-knitted, warp-knitted fabrics and wool-like woven fabrics.
Flat-width dyeing is suitable for woven fabrics with inelastic requirements, especially for silk-like woven fabrics of filament type, which are generally not suitable for such models.
For the type of loose warp knit fabric (such as mosquito net cloth), a warp beam dyeing machine is preferred.
The yarn is mainly dyed in the form of a bobbin or a cage skein. Although the bulk fiber is also dyed in a cage manner, it also has a considerable form difference with the dyeing of the yarn.
Third, the basic function and individual requirements of high temperature leveling agent 3.1 Basic functions of high temperature leveling agent:
A hydrophobic disperse dye suitable for hydrophobic polyester fiber dyeing, but the hydrophobic nature of the dye determines its low water solubility.
This should be said to be a more contradictory thing in the water-based dyeing process.
For this reason, in the commercial disperse dye, a surfactant such as a diffusing agent which is not lower than the ratio of the dye is mixed in a large amount.
Generally dye: filler = 1:1 ~ 1.5.
As a high-temperature leveling agent added in the dyeing working bath, there is a certain auxiliary and supplementary effect to promote the suspension and diffusion state of the dispersed dye particles in the dyeing working bath, and to maintain a uniform and stable distribution.
This is especially important for the light and medium color of the dyes, because the amount of the light and medium color dyes is correspondingly small, and the diffusing agent brought in from the dye is simultaneously reduced, and the high temperature leveling agent is necessary. Provide some compensation.
Dyeing leveling requires an ideal retarding function, which is a functional focus of all leveling agents.
However, the disperse dyes need to be matched with the strong dye transfer function for the leveling of polyester fibers. Because the disperse dyes are dyed on polyester, there is no chemical reaction from beginning to end; and the compact structure of polyester fibers and its extremely dense The characteristics of surface crystal layer play a key retarding effect, and the transfer dye can compensate for the vacancy in this aspect, especially after reaching the 130 Â° C thermal dyeing stage, the dye in the dye bath has been mostly The dyeing function has basically completed the mission, and the dyeing function has become the main role at this stage, which will further promote and ensure the effect on the overall target of the leveling agent.
Therefore, the combination of slow dyeing, transfer dyeing and diffusion enhancement has become the most fundamental basic factor of high temperature leveling agent, and it is also a basic function that must be possessed in the use of various dyeing machines.
3.2 Analysis and classification of individual requirements:
The different dyeing modes of different dyeing machines, in turn, have created individualized requirements for high temperature leveling agents.
On the basis of the above basic essential functions, it is also necessary to form a series of special varieties with individual differences such as low foam type, anti-precipitation type, and penetration strengthening type.
3.2.1 Low foam type and its applicability:
For the nozzle type loose fabric dip dyeing machine such as liquid flow, spraying, etc., the dye bath is subjected to vigorous agitation due to the rapid operation of the fabric in a dyeing machine such as a liquid flow or a spray.
Especially in semi-filled dyeing machines, certain auxiliaries and dyes are highly susceptible to foaming under these environmental conditions.
The leveling agent contains an adduct of ethylene oxide, which makes it easier to foam.
If the foam is continuously increased to a certain extent, the nozzle will form a foamy suction, which will cause the spray pressure to drop, eventually leading to the stoppage of the grey fabric.
Once stopped, it is very likely to produce color flowers, and pleats are often accompanied. The longer the stop time, the more serious the consequences will be.
For this reason, the high-temperature leveling agent used for such dyeing machines should be of a low foam type.
Of course, from the subjective point of view, it is best to have no bubble type, but this is not in line with objective reality.
The vigorous agitation of the dyeing machine from start to finish during operation is very beneficial for maintaining a good suspension state of the undissolved dye in the dye bath, but on the other hand it is a power source that continuously induces foam, requiring it to be completely absent. The operation of the bubble is unrealistic and impossible.
Therefore, in a semi-filled liquid flow, jet dyeing machine, it is still necessary to use the antifoaming agent.
However, it is necessary to mention that on a fully-filled jet dyeing machine, there is almost no need for foam.
Another type of overflow dyeing machine, because the dyeing operation of the grey cloth is driven by the self-flow of water without pressure, and does not use a nozzle, so there is no need to add an antifoaming agent.
3.2.2 Anti-precipitation type and its applicability:
For the high temperature and high pressure jigger, the operation of the grey cloth is mechanical transmission, and the effect of the foam on the operation and dyeing of the dyeing does not have much influence.
However, the operation characteristics of this kind of dyeing machine are that the transfer cloth does not transfer water, and the smaller bath ratio makes the dye g/l unit concentration of the same color formula in the dye bath far greater than the liquid flow, the spray type and the package, and the bulk fiber. Class dyeing machine (generally at least more than doubled).
These all correspondingly increase the objective conditions for the aggregation and precipitation of suspended dyes in the dyebath, so the probability of occurrence of color point rickets is much greater than that of the type of dyeing machine equipped with a powerful circulation pump.
Therefore, they are especially suitable for the use of enhanced diffusion and anti-precipitation functions.
3.2.3 Penetration enhancement and its applicability:
Cloth, cage skein, bulk fiber dyeing machine and other equipment are also equipped with a powerful circulating pump, but they are different from the liquid jet dyeing machine in the fully immersed state of the fiber in the dyeing working bath, and It does not use a nozzle and is not very sharp for foaming problems and anti-sedimentation requirements.
However, they are different from the dyeing machine in terms of water movement and fiber imprinting, and far more than a liquid laminator, jet, jigger, etc. Including the warp beam dyeing machine, in addition to the need for mechanical equipment, there is sufficient water flow penetration capability, so that the high temperature levelling agent can replenish and strengthen the good permeability of all the inner, middle and outer fiber layers. Leveling of the machine is both important and necessary.
Therefore, for them, it is preferable to use a high-temperature leveling agent of osmosis-enhanced type.
Fourth, the conclusion
Leveling is one of the main quality objectives of dyeing, so the level of levelling agent is important in dyeing.
The high-temperature and high-pressure dyeing of polyester fiber, the variety of textile semi-finished products, and its selectivity for dyeing equipment, also correspondingly bring about the diversity of functional requirements for high-temperature leveling agents.
Therefore, the serialization and special purpose of high-temperature leveling agent in design and development is inevitable and necessary, so that it can also meet the actual needs of various types of high-temperature and high-pressure dyeing.
However, it must also be noted that the leveling agent is not the only factor that determines the leveling.
Factors affecting leveling are: the choice of dye specific varieties (compatibility), heating rate, car handling, and the state of the equipment.
Only by making reliable control over all the influencing factors can the dyeing leveling be obtained with a high degree of stable reflection.
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